Sangean blames AM interference on power supply and government regulation

Sangean-AMFM-RadioAfter the Sangean WR-15 received low marks for AM reception in an Amazon review, Bob of Sangean America replied that poor reception is due to the radio’s switching power supply–a design that is federally mandated.

Many thanks to Jeff over at the Herculodge for posting this (click here to read the full response).

It’s a shame the WR-15 can’t accommodate internal batteries as battery operation this would solve the problem.

If I owned the WR-15, I would simply replace the switching type power supply with a regulated power supply.

Looking at the back of the WR-15 (below), it appears it requires 12 volts DC, 1.2 amps and an adapter with a positive center tip. Though I’m judging this only from the image, the plug looks to be a common size.WR-15-back I bet I have a power supply that would fit the bill in my junk drawer.

Bob, at Sangean America, claims moving the radio at least one foot from the power supply should help. In truth, I believe much of the noise may be conveyed by the power cord itself, though I may be wrong.

It’s a shame Sangean engineers couldn’t compensate somehow for the noisy power supply as it seems this radio was actually marketed to AM radio enthusiasts.

Bonito adds new products

The Bonito MegaLoop ML200

The Bonito MegaLoop ML200

I’ve just heard from German manufacturer, Bonito, who has added several new products to their product line:

MegaLoop ML200: The MegaLoop is a 5 meter active stainless steel loop antenna that can be used outdoors. The MegaLoop ML200 ships with a Dual Power power supply (including the ability to power via USB).

Bonito notes that the Megaloop ML200 is currently available for a special price of 279,00€ (incl. 19% VAT)  at HamradioShop.net.

megactiv-83

The MegActiv 305

MegActiv 305: The MegActiv 305 is a compact antenna designed for low-noise reception between 9 kHz and 300 MHz. It has a radiating element of 18cm and can be powered with 5-15 VDC (max.120mA) or with the supplied Dual Power unit CPI 1000DP via USB.

The MegActiv 305 will be available for purchase end of April for an introductory offer of 174,99€ (incl. 19% VAT).

Fenu at fenu-radio.ch will review a sample of the MegActiv 305 in the near future.

OVP1000 Over Voltage Protector: The OVP1000 is an in-line over voltage protector for your receiver. It’s designed to dissipate current pulses caused by nearby thunderstorms. The OVP 1000 protects against high power surges in three ways:

The OVP1000

The OVP1000

  • A gas discharge tube with 60V firing voltage, max. pulse leakage current 1kA (8/20µs)
  • An ultra-fast ESD diode (30KV; max. pulse power 350W (8/20µs)
  • Blocking DC voltages (up to max. 100V) at the input and output.

The OVP1000 is available now for 59,00€ at Hamradioshop.net.

For full details about these new products, please visit Bonito’s blog.

And many thanks to Bonito who is a proud sponsor of the SWLing Post!

The Quadrus SDR: A New Military-Grade Software Defined Radio Receiver

Quadrus-SDRDr. Bertalan Eged of Spectrafold Technologies recently contacted me regarding a new military grade SDR they’ve produced: the Quadrus SDR. Today is the Quadrus official release.

The Quadrus SDR has phase-coherent multi-channel capabilities with up to 16 channels, which means that it can be used for direction finding, diversity reception, as well as MIMO applications.

While the Quadrus line is aimed squarely at government and scientific research markets, the $1490 US Quadrus DRU-244A-1-1-PCI, a four-channel SDR, might appeal to the discerning DXer, amateur radio operator, or radio experimenter.

Below, I’ve posted the full press release from Spectrafold Technologies along with several photos and screen shots.

Since I’m not a radio engineer, I’ve asked a representative of Spectrafold to answer any questions you may have about the Quadrus SDR line and its receiver architecture.


Military-Grade Software Defined Radio Receiver Platform
Now Commercially Available for Building Better Receivers

Quadrus-SDR-2

Phase-coherent, Multi-channel Quadrus Platform Brings New Features to Commercial Market

Spectrafold Technologies today released the Quadrus software defined radio (SDR) platform for commercial use, enabling access to advance, professional-grade platform for signal intelligence, spectrum monitoring communications systems and missions. The long-standing platform has features are still unmatched by other commercially available products, and include four cutting-edge, phase-coherent antenna inputs with 16 bit, 80 MSPS; high-sensitivity, high-dynamic range Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs) driven by a low phase noise; and high-stability sampling clock. The input signal chain also contains a Low-Noise pre-Amplifier (LNA) and an input leveling attenuator providing the necessary sensitivity while still maintaining the proper input drive. The architecture provides the capability of using high gain antennas, and standing against the overload by the crowded radio spectrum.

“Today there is strong international community of radio enthusiasts and listeners using SDR technology, looking for platforms that implement advanced radio signal processing algorithms,” said Dr. Bertalan Eged, chief architect of the Quadrus. “Physically and logically phase-coherent multi-channel SDR platforms provide the capability to implement various algorithms and receivers such as diversity reception, interference cancelling, beam forming and correlative receivers. These applications can help to deliver better sensitivity, more stable fading free reception, longer connectivity and collecting more information on the radio signal environment.”

The platform input bandwidth is wide enough to be used up VHF/UHF bands as Direct Digital Receiver (DDR). The samples are fed into an FPGA, where a non-blocking switch matrix is used to forward them to the input of the four on-board receiver signal processors. The on-board processing is capable of forming a 16 multi-channel receiver. The platform also features a standard PCI interface for PC integration, and comes with a Windows®32 bit kernel driver and fully open API, which can be downloaded from the website along with the operating SDR software. The SDR receiver software has remote control capability for system level integration via TCP/UDP/IP links. Further details on these capabilities are available at the Spectrafold website. The system has spectrum recording capability to binary files, some example can be downloaded for evaluation purposes.

SAGAX DRU244A-1-1-PCI  Stock photo 15-Jan-2015

The Quadrus API is available as a Windows® DLL, and developers and system integrators may download it from the SUPPORT page on the Spectrafold website. The hardware API is meant for direct hardware access, but a higher level remote control interface API is available as well, which can be used to (i) set up the receiver channel parameters and to (ii) access the IF as a UDP/IP stream. If you prefer to not use any of these methods, it is possible to fall back to a virtual audio card connection between the SDR software and external applications, like decoders and post processors.

Additional information on the performance and usage scenarios is available in the BLOG. Users interested in experimenting with the hardware can gain access to remote access to a computer with SDR hardware digitizer and installed SDR software. Interested parties should contact the team by email: quadrus.eval@spectrafold.com

Hardware orders may be placed through the manufacturer’s ORDER page. Standard secure payment option is provided via PayPal. International shipment by UPS is part of the service. The hardware is manufactured in batches with limited stock. Introductory pricing starts at $1490.

###

About Spectrafold Technologies

Spectrafold is a dedicated community of professionals, who work tirelessly to invent and create affordable, cutting edge SDR solutions. Together we have decades of hands-on experience delivering working solutions to the toughest missions and environments. Our customers include academic, governmental, and military organizations, but radio enthusiasts as well.


Screen shots

Click to enlarge:

srm-4 srm-3 srm-2 srm-1

AOR to announce two new products

Is this the TRX-305? We might not know until the Tokyo Ham Radio Fair.

Is this the TRX-305? We might not know until the Tokyo Ham Radio Fair.

According to Dave Zantow (N9EWO), AOR plans to announce two new products this year at the Tokyo Ham Radio Fair: the AR-DV1 receiver and the TRX-305 transceiver.

For more information, check out the news section onDave’s website.

Dates of availability for new Etón shortwave radios…

Eton-Satellit

Several SWLing Post readers have been asking about the availability of the new Etón shortwave radio product line.

I’m pleased to report that I can confirm these availability dates for retailers, suggesting that these Etón units may be ready to ship on these dates:

  • Etón Mini 400: July 14, 2014 ($39 US)
  • Etón Field: July 21, 2014 ($129 US)
  • Etón Traveller III: September 8, 2014 ($59 US)
  • Etón Satellit: September 15, 2014 ($199 US)

The best general coverage transceivers for shortwave listening

This article originally appeared in the May 2014 issue of The Spectrum Monitor Magazine.


Icom-IC7200

The Icom IC-7200 has an excellent general coverage receiver

Like many amateur radio operators, I became interested in HF radio because of my real passion for shortwave radio listening. During my first fifteen years as an SWL, I relied on portable receivers, in my case, the Zenith Transoceanic, Realistic DX-440, and Grundig YB 400. The Zenith was my home radio; I traveled with the DX-440 and YB400. I felt like I had the world at my fingertips.

In the mid 1990s, as an undergraduate, I decided that I would pursue my ham radio license–while on my student budget, I dreamed about upgrading to a proper tabletop receiver like a Kenwood, Icom, JRC or Drake. But when I found out the real cost of buying an HF transceiver (gasp!) I realized that all of my resources would go into a transceiver, and the receiver would just have to wait.

The Icom IC-735 general coverage transceiver

The Icom IC-735 general coverage transceiver

Then, as I was studying for my license in 1997, ham buddy Eric McFadden (WD8RIF) invited me over to his house to test drive his Icom IC-735 transceiver. Eric, along with another friend/elmer, Mike (K8RAT) encouraged me to look for a used IC-735 for an affordable first HF radio.

I recall very well tuning around the ham bands at Eric’s QTH and being most impressed with how the IC-735 seemed to pull signals out of the static. It was my first time ever tuning a tabletop rig, and I was instantly hooked. Later, I asked Eric if the ’735 could also tune in shortwave radio broadcasters? His energetic response: “Sure! The ‘735 is general coverage,” then demonstrated by tuning to the 31M band.

Needless to say, I was absolutely amazed by the number of stations one could hear on this ham radio transceiver. Of course, its sensitivity surpassed anything I had ever owned, especially considering that the rig was hooked up to a proper outdoor wire antenna. I realized then that a ham radio transceiver and receiver–in the same radio–were within my financial grasp.

So, what is “general coverage”––?

A ham transceiver with “general coverage” means that the receiver portion of the radio is not limited to the ham bands only; these receivers typically receive between 100 kHz and 30 MHz (i.e., the full medium and shortwave radio spectrum). Many transceivers, starting in the 1980s, employed a general coverage design as a feature of the radio. Some radios implemented general coverage receiving better than others. In most cases, there was a compromise to performance when the receiver was opened to general coverage reception, so many manufactures held to a ham-band-only platform to optimize performance where hams sought it most. Today, receiver architecture can better accommodate general coverage without compromising sensitivity and selectivity on the ham bands.

Still, in 1997, my Icom IC-735 met all of my ham radio and SWLing expectations. For years, in fact, it was my main SWLing rig. Was the IC-735 as good as a proper tabletop receiver? No. The truth is that its filters and performance were most favorable for the ham radio bands. But as I mentioned, this compromise is much less profound in current transceiver design, and general coverage is status quo.

Benefits of general coverage

Apps like Amateur Radio Exam Prep make exam practice easy and convenient

Apps like Amateur Radio Exam Prep make exam practice easy and convenient

While the benefit of having a transceiver that can tune the full broadcast band may seem obvious, there are two reasons I always have at least one general coverage transceiver in my radio arsenal:

  1. Since I like to travel and save space, a small general coverage transceiver (e.g., the Elecraft KX3) kills two birds with one (portable) stone;
  2. If an emergency, such as a dire weather event were to occur, general coverage will allow me the ability to monitor international broadcasters and local AM (mediumwave) stations while still performing any emcomm (emergency communications) duties.

Another advantage to owning a proper HF transceiver is that, if you currently do not hold an amateur radio license, this may just be the push you need to get your ticket! All you’ll need to do is take two multiple choice tests (Technician and General) to unlock the full potential of your HF transceiver, and you’ll soon enjoy hamming it up with the rest of us.

Cons of general coverage

As I mentioned, general coverage transceivers can present something of a compromise in performance; after all, the rig’s main duty is to perform on the ham bands. Here are a few compromises to be aware of:

  • With a few exceptions, purchasing a ham transceiver is pricier than purchasing a comparable dedicated broadcast receiver
  • AM filters are often much narrower than broadcast receiver filters
  • In many radios, you may be faced with a choice of optimizing filter selections for ham radio use (SSB or CW) or broadcast use (wide AM filters, etc.)
  • Older general coverage transceivers (circa 1980s and 90s) may have somewhat compromised ham band receive performance
  • Some general coverage transceivers may actually lack AM mode. All broadcast reception will basically be tuned via SSB (or better known as ECSS)
  • General coverage transceivers typically lack synchronous detection

Another consideration: while anyone can purchase a general coverage ham radio transceiver, until you hold an amateur radio license with HF privileges, you cannot legally transmit using your radio. I doubt that any readers would consider doing this intentionally, but again your radio is designed to transmit, so this could be done accidently especially if you’re not familiar with transceiver functions. Transmitting unintentionally can have more than legal repercussions: 1) if you transmit with a mis-match between your transmitter and antenna, you could harm the finals in your transceiver; 2) you could damage your radio and/or antenna if using a receive-only antenna (like a mag loop); and 3) you could even receive RF burn. To avoid this, and make it foolproof, search the web for modifications to temporarily disable “transmit” on your radio if indeed you never intend to transmit.

A note about power supplies

My trusty Astron Power Supply

My trusty Astron Power Supply

Unlike stand-alone receivers, most general coverage transceivers require an external DC power supply. If you do not have a power supply, you will need to fit this into your budget. Power supplies can be costly, but also an investment in longevity. With a little knowledge up front, you can be selective and save on your power supply purchase. As I have been using the same power supply (an Astron RS-35A) since 1997, I turned to my friend Fred Osterman, president and owner of Universal Radio, for suggestions on power supplies currently in production.

Fred pointed out that if your only goal is to power a transceiver for the receive function, there is no need to invest in an expensive power supply. He suggests a reliable, regulated power supply, such as their popular $35 (US) Pyramid PS-4KX: at 3.5 amps; indeed, the PS-4KX will be more than enough power for any transceiver in receive mode.

Of course, if you plan to transmit at full power–and unless you have a QRP radio–you will need a power supply that can handle the load. For this purpose, Fred suggests two excellent options:

Again, I’ve had my trusty Astron RS-35A since 1997, so once you’ve invested in a good power supply, you should be all set for many years–and radios–to come.

My old 1 amp regulated laptop power supply is more than adequate for SWLing on the Elecraft KX3

My old 1 amp regulated laptop power supply is more than adequate for SWLing on the Elecraft KX3

Transceivers: Good bets for $1,600 US or less

There are dozens of general coverage transceivers currently on the amateur radio market. Indeed, I don’t believe there are any rigs now in production that do not have a general coverage receiver, or at least the option to add it. Prices vary greatly, but I will assume that most SWLs that are considering the leap into amateur radio will want a radio that costs less than the price of a tabletop radio/transceiver combo. Just to keep things simple, we’ll limit our list to $1,600 US or less, beginning with the least expensive option.

Alinco DX-SR8T ($510 US)

The Alinco DX-SR8 has a detachable face plate

The Alinco DX-SR8 has a detachable face plate

The DX-SR8T ($510 US) is one of the most affordable general coverage transceivers on the market. To be clear, the DX-SR8T lacks many of the frills and features of pricier rigs, but it’s a surprisingly good transceiver and, of course, general coverage shortwave receiver. Indeed, Alinco actually markets a receive-only version of this radio (the DX-R8T, $450US); it is identical in every respect to the DX-SR8T, but simply has no transmit function.

While I have only used the DX-SR8T on a few occasions, I have spent a couple of years with the DX-R8T, and even reviewed it extensively in the SWLing Post. My DX-R8T began life as a review unit that I purchased––it was an early production unit, and even retained the transmit LED indicator found on its sibling, the DX-SR8T. Consider paying the extra $60 US for the DX-SR8T, and you’ll have a basic, full-featured transceiver.

You can purchase the IC-7200 from Universal Radio or other ham radio equipment retailers.

The Icom IC-7200 ($900 US)

The Icom IC-7200

The Icom IC-7200

The IC-7200 delivers a lot of performance for a sub-$1,000 price. Its general coverage receiver will rival that of the venerable R75, and its AM filter can be widened to 6 kHz. Ergonomics are better than average. Plus, it has Icom’s twin passband tuning: the IC-7200’s general coverage receiver actually tunes from 30 kHz all the way to 60 MHz. The IC-7200 is a fantastic value.

You can purchase the IC-7200 from Universal Radio or other ham radio equipment retailers.

The Elecraft KX3 ($900 kit; $1,000 factory pre-assembled)

The Elecraft KX3

The Elecraft KX3

The Elecraft KX3 is my general coverage transceiver of choice. There’s so much about this radio that I like: it’s nearly as compact as my portable shortwave radios, it’s a full-featured transceiver, it can operate on batteries, it has good ergonomics, and is made and supported by Elecraft, right here in the USA.

Its sensitivity and selectivity rival radios three times its price. The only negative I can point out about the KX3, in comparison with many other general coverage transceivers, is that its AM filter is limited to a width of 4.2 kHZ. When I first learned of this, I thought it would be a deal-killer for me. But I was wrong. The audio sounds much more robust and “wide” than I would ever have guessed. It’s excellent. Want more details? I made an extensive review of the Elecraft KX3 in the SWLing Post.

You can purchase the Elecraft KX3 directly from Elecraft.

Note: Elecraft tech support can instruct you in disabling “transmit” on the KX3, if you wish.

The Kenwood TS-590S ($1,500 US)

The Kenwood 590S

The Kenwood 590S

The TS-590S has an excellent general coverage receiver and brilliant audio fidelity. With one of the lowest noise floors in the business, the 590S is well respected amongst amateur radio operators and shortwave radio listeners. If you doubt this, see how the TS-590S compares on Rob Sherwood’s receiver test data page.

You can purchase the Kenwood TS-590S from Universal Radio or other ham radio equipment retailers.

Looking to spend a little more?

Icom-IC-7600

The Icom IC-7600

If you happen to be a ham looking to upgrade their transceiver for benchmark performance, you may be willing to dedicate more funds to your purchase. My buddy, Dave Zantow (N9EWO), a discriminating reviewer for the late great Passport To World Band Radio, is very pleased using his Icom IC-7600 for broadcast listening. He told me recently, “[The IC-7600 is] not perfect, of course, but does perform near excellent and also has a great display [with] a very useful spectrum scope.” Dave has a full review of the IC-7600 posted on his website.

The Ten-Tec OMNI VII

The Ten-Tec OMNI VII

I have also been impressed with the superb broadcast reception of the Ten-Tec OMNI VII ($2,800 US), Ten-Tec Eagle ($1,800 plus wide AM filter) and Orion series transceivers. While the OMNI VII and Orion II will set you back more than $2,000, used original Orions can be found for $1,800 and even less. Ten-Tec still services all of their radios at their headquarters in Sevierville, Tennessee.

Used transceivers

If you would like to save some money, consider searching the used market for one of the radios mentioned above. Alternatively, look for some of these select transceivers that are no longer in production, but are known to have capable general coverage receivers (do note that what follows is simply a selection, not a comprehensive list):

Keep in mind, when you purchase a quality used radio, you can get excellent value for the performance it will reward you. The flip side of this, though, is that if you purchase a radio that hasn’t been in production for over a decade, the chances of finding replacement parts become more difficult with each passing year.

For more hints on purchasing a used rig, check out our Marketplace page.

With the option wide AM filter installed, the Ten-Tec Eagle makes from an amazing broadcast receiver. They are available new from Ten-Tec, but can also be found used.

With the option wide AM filter installed, the Ten-Tec Eagle makes from an amazing broadcast receiver. They are available new from Ten-Tec, but can also be found used.

Summary

If you plan on investing in a fine communications radio, it may be best to economize by investing in a good general coverage transceiver. For the prospective ham, the leap from a tabletop receiver to a fine general coverage transceiver may be less than $300. To prove my point, if an SWL planning to get a ham ticket asks about buying the venerable Icom R75, I would encourage spending $250 to get the Icom IC-7200, instead.

Indeed, with modern receiver architecture, there is little reason not to invest in a good general coverage receiver that you can also use to communicate all over the world when you get your ham ticket. And, need I add, it’s fantastic fun for the money.

If you would like to learn how to become a ham radio operator, check out this great introduction at the ARRL website.

Do you have a radio suggestion that I did not mention?  Please comment!

Tallying up Dayton Hamvention purchases

It have a hard time passing up old military gear, like this Signal Corps BC-221-AL signal generator.

I’m a sucker for old military gear, like this Signal Corps BC-221-AL signal generator. (Click to enlarge)

This year, at the Dayton Hamvention, I spent more money than I ever have.  Though the Hamvention is a showcase of innovations and flea market treasures, I typically walk away with a few connectors, cables, or maybe some handy accessories; I rarely spend more than $100, though I budget much more.

But this year was an exception. I walked away with a few bigger-ticket items I found irresistible.  Buyer’s remorse? Nope.

SWLing Post reader, Mike, asked what I purchased, so instead of sending him an email with the tally, I thought I’d post my finds here.

Hallicrafters SX-24

Hamvention-1

Hamvention-01

I already have an SX-24, but this one is cosmetically superb for its age. The seller told me that she “lights up” but has no audio; it was an estate sale item.  I assume that it has a bad capacitor or two (or more). No doubt, it can be fixed and will fill my radio room with warm audio in due time. At least, that’s the theory!

I purchased this Hallicrafters SX-24 for $60.00

Signal Corps BC-221-AL Signal Generator

Hamvention-08Hamvention-06Hamvention-07Hamvention-03Hamvention-04

This is a working BC-221-AL signal generator that will more than pay for itself each time I align my BC-348-Q (or any of my boat anchors, for that matter). It, too, was in excellent shape and I couldn’t pass it up at $30.00 (great price as the seller was ready to part with it on the final day of the Hamvention). I love the fact that its reference book and log, with schematic, are fully in tact. Bonus: it has that great vintage military electronics smell.

Surmen DC Digital Voltmeter

Voltage Meter

I picked up this simple in-line volt meter at Universal Radio for $20.

The photo above is enlarged: the actual unit is very small (2.75 x 1.5 x 1 inches). Since my whole DC system is based on Anderson Powerpole connectors, this simple meter will help keep tabs on voltage. I think Universal sold out of these at the Hamvention, but since they build them in house, you can order online.

Side KX panels and cover

Hamvention-10Hamvention-11Hamvention-12I like traveling with my Elecraft KX3, but I worry about the faceplate being damaged in transit. In the past, I’ve used dense foam to protect the front of the radio, but it’s an imperfect solution.

This year, Gems Products was selling their Side KX panels at Elecraft‘s booth in the North Hall. The Side KX handles protrude a good 1/8″ beyond the height of the KX3’s knobs, thus protecting the rig even if turned upside down. I also purchased the clear Lexan cover which fits perfectly on the radio. Now when I travel, I can throw the KX3 in my backpack and not worry about the face being damaged.

At a Hamvention discounted price of $60 with tax, it was no minor purchase, but the investment to protect a $1,200 portable radio was well worth it. I must say, the fit is excellent and installation took perhaps 5 minutes.

Sony TFM-1600W portable radio

Hamvention-02

This Sony was a late Saturday flea market purchase. The vendor–who attends annually and is well known for his gorgeous display of antique tube radios–had this solid-state Sony sitting at the back corner of the booth. It quickly attracted my attention and that of my buddy (and radio enabler) Mike (K8RAT).

Originally priced at $65.00, the vendor was kind enough to let me talk him down (“beg” is more like it, right Mike?) to the $40.00 cash I had left in my pocket.

Once we got it back to our lodging we confirmed what we had suspected: this Sony has incredible audio fidelity and great sensitivity.  No big surprise here: in the 1970’s, Sony was a brand well-known for superb audio fidelity.

This Sony will need a little work–the pots and band switch need a thorough cleaning. Also, the tuning needle somehow came dis-lodged from the fly-wheel mechanism. All of these things can be fixed, though, and I’ll have a superb receiver that should last a few more decades. For a radio built in Japan in 1971, I’m very happy with its condition.

Palstar SP30B Speaker

PalstarSP30B

I’m a sucker for hand-crafted gear. While perusing the flea market, I looked for an affordable vintage speaker for my BC-348-Q, but I couldn’t find one. Inside, however, I spotted this beautiful speaker at Palstar’s booth in the East Hall. I’ve owned a Palstar R30C shortwave receiver before and know how much they care about audio fidelity and overall quality. The SP30B was originally designed for the R30 series receiver.

The wood speaker cabinet on the SP30B is built by a wood worker exclusively for Palstar; the finish is amazing.

The SP30B retails for $99.95 at Palstar.com. I was able to snag this one for only $75 as it was a display and Palstar’s last one with cherry finish.

Miscellaneous items

I purchased a few additional accessories and supplies:

  • Icom ID-51a BP-272Li extra capacity battery from Batteries America: $52.00
  • 75 feet of coaxial cable: $70
  • 8 blemished PowerFilm solar plates: $5

There may have been more items, but I’m calling this a total Hamvention expenditure of $412. 

Did you attend the Dayton Hamvention?  How much damage did it do to your wallet?