World Radio Day 2016

fb banner greenFebruary 13th is World Radio Day, a day “to remember the unique power of radio to touch lives and bring people together across every corner of the globe,” as UNESCO reminds us. At the SWLing Post, we get it: shortwave radio listeners understand the unique power of information unhindered by borders, censors, or subscription fees, as supplied by radio.

This year, the UNESCO theme for World Radio Day is a worthy one: “Radio in Times of Emergency and Disaster.”

And here are just a few ways you can celebrate World Radio Day 2016…

Ears To Our World (ETOW)

GSM Bohnso School, Cameroon (Photo courtesy of ETOW partner, EduCare Africa)

GSM Bohnso School, Cameroon (Photo courtesy of ETOW partner, EduCare Africa)

Of course, at my non-profit Ears To Our World, we celebrate the unique power of radio everyday. While we use a variety of technologies in rural and remote communities, radio still plays a central role since it’s such an accessible technology.

In 2014 and 2015, for example, we distributed Sony AM/FM radios that gave children in Sierra Leone the opportunity to listen to over-the-air classes while their school system was shut down due to Ebola.

Powered by this success, we’re now in the process of putting together radio projects for rural, off-the-grid communities in Haiti, Cameroon, and Kenya, where children and their families need the education and information radio can provide.

If you would like to help, please consider a donation of any amount.  This is unquestionably a meaningful way to give the gift of radio, as well as education.

Amateur Radio

The Phoenix Amateur Radio Club will celebrate World Radio Day on the 13th and 14th of February with on-air shortwave activities, as a key part of the club’s ongoing British Scientists Commemorations.  This sounds like an enjoyable way to honor the day as well as the contributions of British scientists.

Click here for more info.

Radio Romania InternationalRRI-RadioRomaniaInternational

Radio Romania issues the following fun invitation:

On World Radio Day 2016, we invite you, dear friends, to send us short recorded messages on this [year’s] topic, by e-mail, as audio-attachments, at engl@rri.ro. You can also send us short written messages on the importance of radio in times of disaster by e-mail or…post them on RRI’s Facebook page, on Google+, LinkedIn and Tumblr.

The most interesting texts and audio messages will be included in a special program on RRI, around February 13th, 2016.

Also, if you have royalty-free personal photos illustrative of the role played by radio in your life, or… the role of radio in times of emergency and disaster, please send them to us in electronic format, accompanied by the necessary explanations, in order to create a photo gallery on RRI’s website and to post them on our social network profiles.
Click here for the full article.

VOARadioGramVOA Radiogram

VOA Radiogram will honor World Radio Day with text and images sent via shortwave radio; you may enjoy receiving this fun “coded” message:

Old shortwave, medium wave, and longwave transmitters can be used to transmit text and images. This can be useful when the Internet is not available for any reason.

VOA Radiogram, an experimental Voice of America radio gram, transmits text and images via a 50-year-old shortwave transmitter located in North Carolina. VOA Radiogram during the weekend on 13-14 February will include a mention of World Radio Day. Receive VOA Radiogram on any shortwave radio, patch the audio into a PC or Android device using software such as Fldigi from w1hkj.com.

VOA Radiogram transmission schedule
(all days and times UTC):

  • Sat 0930-1000 5865 kHz
  • Sat 1600-1630 17580 kHz
  • Sun 0230-0300 5745 kHz
  • Sun 1930-2000 15670 kHz

All via the Edward R. Murrow transmitting station in North Carolina.

Want the full WRD events list?

There are dozens of World Radio Day events happening around the world.  For a full list of registered events, check out the World Radio Day website.

Here’s to WRD 2016!  Enjoy!

How will you celebrate World Radio Day 2016?

Why Shortwave Radio is Still a Superior Educational Technology

PES-SouthSudan

Children in South Sudan listen to their shortwave radio (Photo: PESS/ETOW)

Reader and contributor Dr. Ed Harris recently authored an excellent article in which he describes why shortwave radio remains a practical and accessible educational technology in today’s world.

And he should know.  Ed––a long-time DXer and world traveler, currently studying to be a ham radio operator––is also a professor of educational leadership at Oklahoma State University College of Education, where he teaches courses in leadership, ethics, and research. Additionally, he oversees the Brock International Prize in Education, which discovers and awards the best ideas in education and showcases them to the world.

Ed is also an Ears To Our World advisory board member––not to mention, a good friend: we’ve travelled together on behalf of Ears To Our World to offer support with educational technologies in parts of the world where they’re needed.

Ed has kindly allowed me to post his full article here on the SWLing Post, as I believe many of you will appreciate this.


whole-earth-catalog

Using  “Whole Earth” Criteria to Explain Why Shortwave Radio is Still a Superior Educational Technology

Ed Harris, Oklahoma State University – College of Education

            As a professor of education, I see concerted efforts across the planet to increase educational opportunities for all global citizens. Governments and institutions are acknowledging that education is vital to social and economic sustainability for everyone, everywhere. For some global citizens, the convergence of the Internet with modern instructional technologies has provided advanced and rewarding educational opportunities.  However, numerous geographical regions are still plagued by educational inequities that result in social and economic disparities.

While there are no quick fixes for these inequities and disparities, the issues can be boiled-down to two interrelated factors:  (1) isolation (i.e., insulation from available and accessible services) and (2) poverty (i.e., insufficient means to procure services). Isolation is a huge problem domestically and abroad. In all parts of the world, rural is rural.  In those areas where people are geographically or politically isolated from available services, the Internet and innovative technologies actually perpetuate educational inequities and widen the digital divide between the have and have-nots.  Moreover, in many areas, the lack of money for basic electricity and Internet subscriptions compound the problem, making educational inclusion virtually impossible.

A few years ago, a colleague and I published an article regarding the above dilemmas in light of the accessibility and sustainability of modern educational technologies.[1] We explained that although we live in the 21st Century, we could benefit significantly from the criteria that “Whole Earth Catalog” used to select sustainable, user-friendly tools for their publications.

For you non-Baby Boomers, the “Whole Earth Catalog” was a collection of creative articles and durable, practical tools published from 1968 to 1972 and sporadically thereafter.[2] Whole Earth editors did not just curate tools; they curated ideas and promoted a philosophy by which to use those tools. Whole Earth technologies were timeless and provided opportunities for personal growth and social development. Before any product was included in the Catalog, it must have met a rigid set of standards:

  1. High quality at a reasonable cost,
  2. Easily accessible,
  3. Useful and relevant to independent or self education, and
  4. Capable of launching a cascade of new opportunities.

Rather than applying the above criteria specifically to radio, we applied them to a wide array of instructional technologies. However, when shortwave radio is held up to the scrutiny of Whole Earth’s standards, readers can see below that radio clearly ascends to the top of the “ed-tech” pyramid.

Standard 1: A Good Tool Offers High Quality at a Reasonable Cost

EtonRadioHigh quality and affordability are obvious factors in any discussion on sustainable technologies. Educators must consider the cost of ownership and return on investment as they seek to adopt new educational technologies. While computers and mobile devices are quite popular in today’s educational settings, their cost prohibits them being used by many across the globe. On the other hand, shortwave radio is relatively inexpensive. Low-cost shortwave receivers can be purchased in almost every part of the world.             Moreover, simple, inexpensive shortwave regenerative receivers can be easily built with a few parts. Even in the most disadvantaged parts of the world, one can find shortwave receivers, and many radios now include hand-cranked devices that provide power without batteries. To add to radio’s cost appeal, listening is absolutely free and does not require special apps or subscription fees.

Standard 2: A Good Tool is Easily Accessible

In the “Whole Earth” days, accessibility was expressed in terms of how easily the technology could be mailed or shipped. For instance, while large harvesting combines were not seen in the publications, sickles, pocketknives and books were prominent. An inaccessible tool is useless, while an accessible tool is invaluable.

Academic fields such as Educational Technology differentiate between (1) availability, which concerns how readily obtainable a technology is, and (2) accessibility, which concerns the skills one needs to successfully employ the technology in the manner intended. An example might be digital library services. Most universities make available a wealth of research materials online for anyone who has university credentials to log in to their system. However, while these materials are available, they are not necessarily accessible to users who are unable to navigate the library website, remember his or her login credentials, or have the search skills to interact efficiently with digital databases. Thus, when adopting new educational technologies, both availability and accessibility must be considered and planned for.

Earth-ClipArtRegarding the accessibility of shortwave transmissions, radio may be the most available and readily accessible technology in the world. Shortwave radio remains the only medium capable of direct communication from one country to listeners in another country without intermediaries such as satellites, cable companies, or Internet providers. Shortwave signals can be accessed anywhere on the planet, and radio is a safe way of providing information to areas of conflict or during an emergency.

Unlike most other radio communications frequencies (such as those used by FM radio, WiFi networks and Mobile Phones) which are limited to local or line-of-sight propagation, shortwave radio signals bounce off the ionosphere and blanket earth with broadcasts and information.  Every corner of the globe can receive shortwave radio broadcasts with even a simple $20 portable radio. When radio is seen as an available, accessible, and affordable educational tool, potential educational opportunities sources dramatically widen and serve to bridge the digital divide.

Standard 3: A Good Tool is Useful for Self-education

ETOW-Uganda-RadioFor educators, self-directed learning (SDL) is a top goal in the educational process. In SDL, the individual learner takes the initiative and the responsibility for what occurs and has the opportunity to choose from a range of available and appropriate resources. Thus, since opportunity and choice can empower a person to grow in his or her capacity to be self-directing, these factors should be nurtured and promoted in educational processes.

The Internet is example of a technology that nurtures self-direction and promotes both informal and formal learning opportunities. However, even the Internet does not surpass radios usefulness in self-education. Research indicates that radio is more than just music, news and entertainment. Rather, radio listening can meet educational needs such as individualized learning, belongingness, self-esteem, independent learning, and even self-actualization in a variety of different ways. Listeners can engage simply by selecting the format type that meets their requirements at any specified period of time.[3]

Moreover, radio listening is edifying because listeners hear current events and ideas from different perspectives across the world. The choices of the learner in radio listening are paramount because he or she can choose the station, choose what they want to get from the experience, and choose with whom they would like to share that experience.

Standard 4: A Good Tool Launches a Cascade of New Opportunities

Opportunity-ClipArtWhole Earth editor Kevin Kelly often reminded readers that all technologies create their own set of problems; however, superior technologies result in new opportunities and ways to solve problems.[4]  Whole Earth was at the forefront of reminding readers of the cycle of  (1) new tool, (2) new challenges, and then back to (3) new tools. In educational terms, when a learner completes a learning cycle, he or she is not only gaining personal and professional knowledge and skills, but impacting future learning as well.[5] The cyclical cascade of opportunities from shortwave radio is impressive. For example:

  • The opportunity of creative imagination and proactive listening. Radio listening feeds imagination and brings an auditory dimension to our lives. It allows for networks of mental associations, and facilitates the listener to vicariously “visit” new places and new cultures. These opportunities serve to facilitate the formation of identity, purpose, and listening skills vital to good communication.[6]
  • The opportunity of connections. Radio listening broadens connections and increases community. Radio listening helps both in making connections of desperate pieces of information and in being connected with each other and to the world. Understanding the interconnection of knowledge is vital in the learning process. Radio listeners hear different perspectives from around the world and are automatically put in the arena of connection making and discernment. Also, radio listening can be a community endeavor in itself.
  • The opportunity of inherent learning about radio. The radio is an educational device, and subjects that can be integrated in radio listening include geography, sociology, politics, mathematics, and a host of others. However, the radio device itself is instructional. Understanding electronics, circuit construction, safety, modes and systems, propagation of radio frequency signals, serving equipment, and progressing host of others.

Summary and Challenge

A good question would be, “Well, did Whole Earth Catalog include shortwave radios in their publications?” The answer is yes. In almost all their publications, radio – i.e., shortwave, amateur, electronics, books/guides, education, and/or communication – was referenced in some way. For example, on page 259 of the special 1994 publication, THE MILLENNIUM WHOLE EARTH CATALOG: Access to Tools and Ideas for the Twenty-first Century, the Sony ICF-SWIOO Receiver was showcased. In that edition, the authors commented, “No alternative yet proposed (satellite radio, personal wireless computer gizmo) offers the same combination of a cheap, portable receiver and program content that crosses borders unfiltered by any government or corporate gatekeeper.”

While technology is constantly evolving, the wisdom of Whole Earth prevails — the wisdom inherent in using technologies that promote a sustainable lifestyle. In education today, we are continually seeking innovative, timeless, and empowering technologies to promote sustained learning for all.  Just as the publishers of Whole Earth Catalog understood, educational technologies are best adopted from grassroots efforts, and those technologies adopted, must empower users to take learning, teaching and research to deeper, more meaningful levels.

The radio has been with us for a long time, is still be a superior instructional technology, and can have an important place in education. However, those of us who have this vision must collaborate to regenerate enthusiasm for this valuable medium as well as devise cost-efficient, user-friendly, and sustainable solutions. Some suggested goals could include the following:

  • Develop school broadcasts that include curriculum-based content and professional development content for educators;
  • Develop and utilize existing language learning programs aimed to teach a variety of languages;
  • Utilize interactive radio technologies that allow for asynchronous feedback and communication;
  • Develop cooperative relationships with regional governments and/or educational institutions to store and broadcast programs for broadcast to the peoples in their respective areas.

Innovative ideas, interconnections through sharing those ideas, and purposeful inclusion of technologies in today’s educational landscape echo the rationale behind Whole Earth Catalog. So in striving for sustainable tools for 21st Century education, as Whole Earth readers were reminded in every issue of the Catalog, we must seek technologies and skills that empower individuals to take ownership of their education, shape their environments, and especially, share the adventure with whoever is interested. When addressing these challenges, shortwave radio is still a viable, superior educational solution.

[1] See Susan Stanberry and Ed Harris’s Back to the future: Revisiting the “Whole Earth” concept of sustainable tools for 21st century education. Journal of Sustainability Education (2015 publication)

[2] While Whole Earth no longer prints a hard-copy version of the Catalog, one can see digital versions at http://wholeearth.com

[3] See Shannon and Brown’s article, Radio Listening as a Function of Basic Human Need: Why Did Maslow Listen to Radio?

[4] See Kelly, K. (2000). “Tools Are the Revolution,” in WHOLE EARTH CATALOG.

[5] Marra, R., Howland, J., Wedman, J., and Diggs, L. (2003). A little TLC (technology learning cycle) as a means to technology integration. TechTrends, 47(2), 15-19. Doi: 10.1007/BF02763419.

[6] See Susan Douglas’s (2004) book, Listening In: Radio and the American Imagination.


Ed Harris can be reached at ed.harris@okstate.edu and would love to hear about your ideas of combining education and radio or advice on the ham exam.

Going to the Dayton Hamvention? Stop by our booth!

Hamvention

For the fifth year in a row at the Dayton Hamvention, fellow volunteers and I will be representing the charity Ears To Our World (ETOW).

I always enjoy meeting SWLing Post readers who stop by our booth to introduce themselves.

For the third year in a row, we will be at booth BA411 in the Ball Arena. Here’s a map for reference.

HumanaLight-FrontIf you’re not familiar with Ears To Our World and our mission to empower children and teachers in the third word through radio and other technologies, check out our website and this article from the Wall Street Journal.

Note that this year we will also give away our HumanaLight kits to those who donate $20 or more to ETOW (while supplies last). 

Look forward to meeting you in Dayton!

-Thomas (K4SWL)

Happy World Radio Day 2015: several ways you can celebrate

wrd_cover_blue_en

Today is World Radio Day, a time “to remember the unique power of radio to touch lives and bring people together across every corner of the globe,” UNESCO reminds us. As shortwave radio listeners, we understand this power of information without borders.

Here are a few ways you can celebrate World Radio Day 2015…

Ears To Our World (ETOW)

In Belieze, ETOW works with visually impaired children through our partner and friends at the Belieze Council for the Visually Impaired. Photo by ETOW volunteer/supporter, David Korchin K2WNW

In Belize, ETOW works with visually impaired children through our partner and friends at the Belize Council for the Visually Impaired. Photo by ETOW volunteer/supporter, David Korchin (K2WNW). Click to enlarge.

Of course, at my non-profit, Ears To Our World, we celebrate the unique power of radio everyday as well.

Indeed, we’re in the process of preparing at least another 100 radios for Sierra Leone, where children are receiving education over the airwaves as schools have been closed in an effort to stop the spread of Ebola.

If you would like to help us, please consider a donation of any amount.  Certainly a meaningful way to give the gift of radio and education.

On air events

If you can get on the air today, there are a few events happening around the world you might be able to catch:

Alexanderson Alternator Station SAQ

Alexanderson alternator in the SAQ Grimeton VLF transmitter.

Alexanderson alternator in the SAQ Grimeton VLF transmitter.

SWLing Post reader, Greg (VA7BC), passes along this announcement from the ARRL:

“The World Heritage Grimeton Radio SAQ in Sweden plans to fire up its Alexanderson alternator on 17.2 kHz on the occasion of UNESCO World Radio Day, Friday, February 13. The station will begin tuning at 1430 UTC, and a message will be transmitted at 1500 UTC.

A message with a theme of “peace” has been put together by more than 200 citizens of Varberg, Sweden, via the “Varberg Calling for Peace” project.

SAQ will not be issuing QSL cards nor post a list of reports, but it will accept brief listener reports. The Grimeton site’s Amateur Radio station SK6SAQ will be active, using a special event World Radio Day call sign — 7S6WRD. Frequencies: 7035 kHz or 14,035 khz, CW, and 3755 kHz SSB. QSL to 7S6WRD via SM bureau.

Read the full article at the ARRL website. I will certainly attempt to hear this broadcast on 14,035 kHz CW.

If any SWLing Post readers are able to record the SSB transmission on 3,755 kHz, I would love to add the audio to our audio archive.

Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union relay

ABU-logoThe Southgate ARC reports that ABU members will particiapte in a round-the-world broadcast relay:

“On Friday 13 February 2015, participating broadcasters around the globe will devote at least half-an-hour of their programming to the WRD 2015 themes “Innovation and youth in radio”.

The main organisers, the European Broadcasting Union, in partnership with the ABU and other broadcasting unions, will also offer three short optional pre-recorded radio features devoted to Radio and Youth, Radio and Innovation and the History of Humanitarian Use of Radio: UN Radio.

The segments can be used whole or in part in a time slot of each station’s choice. Most of the features will also be available with scripts in French, Russian, Spanish, Arabic and Chinese, thanks to the UN.

Speeches by UN personalities will also be available ready to use on air, plus a one-hour rights-free concert live from Geneva by the UN Jazz Orchestra will be made available.

Organisers say that, as this will be a relay following the world’s time  zones, there will be a succession of radio stations each handing over to the next participant throughout the day.

To give listeners around the world the chance to follow this special WRD program, the broadcasts will be put on an Internet stream, coordinated via the EBU in Geneva.

http://www.abu.org.my/Latest_News-@-World_Radio_Day_relays_round_the_world.aspx

4U0ITU on-air for World Radio Day

ITU-Club-LOGOAgain, the Southgate ARC reports via the ARRL:

“The ITU International Amateur Radio Club station in Geneva will use the special call 4U0ITO to mark World Radio Day on Friday, February 13

The ARRL report this event also marks the kickoff for the International Telecommunication Union 150th anniversary.

International Amateur Radio Union President Tim Ellam, VE6SH, will inaugurate special call sign 4U0ITU at 0900 UT. He will be accompanied by ITU Secretary General Houlin Zhao, other elected officials and VIPs.

The IARC will use the 4U0ITU call sign until the World Radiocommunication Conference 2015, November 2-27.

World Radio Day commemorates the first broadcasts of UN Radio in 1946.”

Send listener reports to your favorite shortwave broadcasters

DW Kigali QSL CardMany of your favorite shortwave broadcasters will dedicate a portion of their programming to World Radio Day.

This is the perfect day, as a listener, to let your favorite broadcasters know you’re listening! Send in a proper QSL report–mention the time, frequency and type of programming you heard. Give the broadcaster a proper signal report as well (click here to read about the universally accepted SINPO code). Broadcasters love to hear about any insight you pulled from their news items or reports–the more detail, the better. And thank them for broadcasting over shortwave.

You can typically find contact information on the broadcaster’s website.  If you have any difficulty, please comment and I, or another reader/contributor, will try to help.

Happy World Radio Day!

It’s been fun to see how World Radio Day has grown over the years. I believe it’s a wonderful reason to celebrate all that we love about radio.

To celebrate  World Radio Day 2013, UNESCO asked me to record why I believe radio is relevant today. Here was my response:

Click here to read more about World Radio Day.

“Less plug” and much “more play”–!

Aw, gee–you know you’ve made it the in the world when the talented and inimitable Jeff Murray (K1NSS) takes the Mickey out of you with his quirky vintage-style imagery.  This time, it was yours truly that got a dose of the Murray treatment…
K1NSS-meJeff, you inject this hobby with the requisite dose of whimsy. Thanks so much for “plugging” Ears To Our World!

Merry listening, friends! If you would like to support Ears To Our World with a tax-deductible donation, click here!

I’ve said it before, and I’ll say it again–if you want to hire a talented artist for graphics or a unique QSL card, Jeff is clearly the guy to call upon.

Global 24’s take on the future of the shortwave radio

Many thanks to the staff of Global 24 for the following response to my post, Does Shortwave Radio Have a Future?:


Global24

To Shortwave Listeners of the World:

Shortwave radio is not dying. In fact, we think the whole story line should just go away.

We wanted to thank Thomas Witherspoon of SWLing.com for his excellent article on this very topic and the team of Global 24 wanted to share our perspective on this question.

First,

The 5,000 of you that have written to Global 24 since November 1, 2014 attest to the fact that shortwave radio is not dying.

The 1,000 of you that have joined our Listeners Club and Insiders Club since November 1, 2014 attest to the fact that shortwave radio is not dying.

The 30,000 unique visitors that visited our website, Global24Radio.com, since November 1, 2014 attest to the fact that shortwave radio is not dying.

You can expect Global 24 to be outspoken whenever and where ever we hear the words that shortwave radio is dying.

Yes, many government broadcast operations have closed up shop. They are totally incorrect in their worldview and so-called “research”. The public diplomacy and foreign policies of governments around the world are in incoherent disarray. It’s not surprising that incoherent foreign policy equates to government shortwave broadcasting being cut back. The fact that the U.S. government thinks shortwave is a medium of the past – should be enough for us all to stand up and cast a doubtful stare.

Whether we are confronting Ebola, dwindling global natural resources,welcoming the Arab spring or dealing with the reality of more and more failed states – states based on borders and beliefs largely imposed by the West – we are living in a world that is more dangerous than ever.

Important World Events Need a Western Perspective on Shortwave

Yes, we live in a world where terrorists groups like ISIS send out thousands of tweets an hour recruiting people to their violent worldview. Yes, we live in a world where ISIS produces an “Annual Report” that visually looks as good as than anything the Voice of America (VoA) produces. Yes, we live in a world where the internet reach of terrorists far eclipses the audience of the VoA. Does shortwave have a place in this world? Of course it does. One kid in Syria – or anywhere in the Middle East – listening to a shortwave radio that gets a different perspective and doesn’t go radical makes it worth it to us. Shortwave is a place where moderate worldviews can be heard easily.

Anyone with TV access or web access has so many other choices for information gathering. Why yield the field in shortwave – the one place where an audience is guaranteed? The governments of many nations, especially the United States need to “go back to the basics” and go back to shortwave radio. VoA, Radio Free Europe, Radio Liberty, Radio Free Asia, Radio Marti and the Middle Eastern Broadcasters need to have their shortwave budgets exponentially increased immediately. It’s not just about hot button issues and unfree governments – it’s about inexpensive access to information for the world and simple “soft power”. Simply look at China Radio International or the Xinhua news agency and you will see a rapidly growing international presence – they are fighting the fights we have already largely walked away from.

The Developing World Still Need Shortwave

We live in a world where access to electricity is still limited to huge swaths of our brothers and sisters around the world. Does shortwave have a place of growing importance in this world? Of course, it does.

Shortwave radio requires no electrical mains, no internet access, no subscriptions – and of course, one radio can be shared and listened to by so many people. How can we live in a world where so many people don’t have clean water, electricity, basic medical care and access to information and think that social media, TV and the internet are the sole communication vehicles of the future? When kids in every country the world over have the water they need, the eyeglasses they need, the medical care they need, the electricity they need and the education they need, then maybe we can talk about engaging them on their smartphones and TVs exclusively and winning over their hearts and minds with 160 character “Tweets”.

Shortwave was, and is, a battle that must be won – not given up on.

The Rest of Us Still Need Shortwave

For the first time in many of our lives, we all should genuinely concerned about press freedom in the United States and in other “First World” nations – yet alone press freedom in countries driving world events like Russia, China, Saudi Arabia and Iran. Across our country more and more people are seeking a simpler lifestyle unburdened by expensive TV, internet and satellite connections. A lifestyle characterized by a lack of dependence – in terms of either information, resources or infrastructure. We are prepping, homesteading and preparing to live off the grid together. We are buying our guns, packing our bug out bags and drawing up emergency plans for our families. .

What We Plan to Do

Here at Global 24 – we are a modest operation but we will be bringing to the world a new view of shortwave radio. Together with our listeners, we can do what governments can not do alone: create a renaissance in shortwave listening in the form of commercial shortwave listening before manufacturers stop making radios and stores stop marketing and selling them. These are the real threats to shortwave radio.

Does Shortwave Radio Have a Future?

This article originally appeared in the October 2014 issue of The Spectrum Monitor Magazine.


nasa_earthlight

There’s a topic I’d like to put on table. One that, in my radio-centric world, stirs up a fair amount of discussion…and, truth be told, apprehension.

The question, simply put, is this: “Does shortwave radio have a future?”

I’m frequently asked this question on my blog, the SWLing Post. Somehow–although I’m not sure how–I’ve become something of a go-to individual when this topic arises, and find myself facing this question frequently.

In my work, I continue to regard shortwave radio as a relevant and contemporary medium that conveys information to all parts of the globe, regardless of where on earth one is born, and, for the most part, regardless of one’s income or status. I love the technology, the content, the variety, the affordability, the relevance, and (let’s face it) the sheer magic of shortwave radio. I love that the medium can help people, teach people, move and inspire people, all around the world, everyday–even in the midst of famines, disasters, crises, wars.

(Source: UC Berkley)

(Source: UC Berkley)

The shortwaves–which is to say, the high-frequency portion of the radio spectrum–will never disappear, even though international broadcasters may eventually fade into history. I often think of the shortwave spectrum as a global resource that will always be here, even if we humans are not. But on a brighter note, I expect the shortwave spectrum will be used for centuries to come, as we implement various technologies that find ways to make use of the medium.

So, in the broadest sense, yes; I sincerely believe shortwave has a future.

But that’s not really what most people are asking. Most want to know if there is anything out there to listen to–and what, if anything, will continue to be out there. Broadcasters have been using the shortwave medium for a long time to spread their message. And many of us (TSM and SWLing Post readers, for example) are still listening. At least, as long as the broadcasting, itself, continues.

The transmitter building of Radio Canada International, Sackville, NB.

The transmitter building of Radio Canada International, Sackville, NB.

Shortwave broadcasting: clearly on the decline

Just to be clear: when I refer to a shortwave broadcaster here, I refer to the large government-supported international broadcaster, unless I specify differently. (There are also many private, non-profit, and clandestine broadcasters; these I will address separately).

If you’re a dedicated shortwave radio listener, radio news just this year has been enough to squelch anyone’s enthusiasm for the future of the hobby. The Voice of America, with very little warning, dropped many of their shortwave services in the final week of June 2014, and now it appears that the Broadcasting Board of Governors’ (BBG), according to their special committee report, regard shortwave radio as a legacy technology with a dwindling listenership. They cite plummeting listener numbers around the world, despite an acknowledgement that there are still communities throughout the world who rely on shortwave.

Moreover, Radio Australia has also been hit hard with budget cuts via their parent Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC). While there is no confirmation of a loss of shortwave services at time of writing, no doubt ABC also plans to reduce RA’s shortwave offerings significantly at some point.

And earlier this year after months of speculation, Voice of Russia suddenly dropped all of their shortwave radio services. I, for one, didn’t see that coming; I wouldn’t have guessed that VOR would drop shortwave completely. VOR, and its predecessor, Radio Moscow, have long been dominant voices on the shortwaves. Now they have fallen silent,* just as tensions between Russia and many other countries heat up.

[FOOTNOTE: *However, Voice of Russia may be relayed on the new shortwave broadcaster, Global 24.]

Radio Exterior de España, a broadcaster I’ve also listened to most of my life, has also just announced their closure (October 15, 2014).

Even the small non-profit clandestine station, Shortwave Radio Africa, sadly lost funding in August 2014, closing shop within the course of a few weeks; this was a particularly unfortunate event, as this station provided an alternative voice to government propaganda.

So, let’s face it–shortwave radio broadcasting is on the decline. It simply is. There is no denying this.

Hitting home

Listening to the final broadcast of Radio Netherlands in an off-grid cabin on Prince Edward Island.

Listening to the final broadcast of Radio Netherlands in an off-grid cabin on Prince Edward Island.

Clearly, there are not as many broadcasters on the air as there were in even the late 1990s, let alone as many as there were in the late 1970s and early 1980s, when as a child I began SWLing, and found the bands crowded with voices clamoring to be heard.

Now I’m finding it difficult to imagine a world without, for example, Radio Australia. I have tuned into RA on 9,580 kHz since I was eight years old; if I have a companion on the shortwaves, it’s surely Radio Australia. But I do have to come to terms with the idea that we may lose RA at some point, too–indeed, it’s most likely.

In the past five years I’ve had to say a painful goodbye to some of my favorite broadcasters: Radio Netherlands Worldwide, Radio Canada International, and Radio Bulgaria; at the same time, the BBC, DW, RFI, and the Voice of America have all decreased broadcasting hours, as well.

I find it sad to hear these stations fall silent, one by one. Perhaps because I’m something of an anachronism–a fellow who still uses shortwave radio as a means to understand the world, who still regards radio as a source of news that is…well…from the source.

Perhaps this is why I feel so compelled to archive shortwave radio broadcasts on the Shortwave Radio Audio Archive, why I especially want to hear the voice of each station preserved. And I hope this archive will also serve as a reminder that wireless information has been crossing the planet for the better part of a century, even faster than the Internet can disseminate it now. Shortwave still has this power.

What about private, independent broadcasters?

So far, I’ve been primarily addressing government broadcasting. But what about private shortwave broadcasters, who often rely on revenue from content providers and advertising? While struggling in some respects in this economy, private broadcasters are still prominent on the shortwave landscape.

I asked Jeff White, president of the private shortwave broadcaster WRMI about the current state of private broadcasting:

“There has been some decline in shortwave broadcasting among private broadcasters (primarily religious broadcasters). HCJB in Ecuador and FEBA in the Seychelles come to mind­­–also Christian Vision in Chile. But most of the privately-owned broadcasters seem to be in a status quo situation–not any significant decline, and not any significant growth. Of course you also have to consider the government broadcasters who have privatized their transmitter sites to separate companies, like Babcock, Media Broadcast, MGLOB in Madagascar, Sentech, TDF, etc. In that sense, there has been a great growth in private SW broadcasting, although Media Broadcast has closed a site or two and TDF closed their site in French Guiana (but they both are still very strong shortwave relay sites with lots of clients).”

Most private broadcasting sites were constructed with efficiency and profitability in mind, as compared with many government-funded broadcasting sites, which during the Cold War, built robust and even redundant systems to ensure their radio voice being heard across the planet.

As a case in point, Jeff White’s WRMI is the largest private broadcaster in North America, and one of the largest in the world–but it has much less overhead than, for example, the IBB’s Edward R. Murrow Transmission site in Greenville, North Carolina. According to Jeff White, WRMI sits on 660 acres (one square mile), whereas the IBB site encompasses 2,800 acres (4.4 square miles). While WRMI has more transmitters (fourteen, compared to IBB’s eight) the IBB maintains a larger antenna farm and larger transmitter building, with more employees. In short, the Edward R. Murrow Transmission Site was never designed for efficiency and profitability, whereas WRMI (and its predecessor WYFR) was.

But to be clear, I strongly believe the US should maintain and use the Edward R. Murrow Transmission site; this broadcasting site is simply too valuable a diplomatic resource to abandon. Moreover, in the past 40 years this site has undergone many updates and improvements which allows it to be operated 24/7 by a very small (and efficient) crew of dedicated employees. [Check out my virtual tour of the Edward R. Murrow transmission site to see this remarkable international broadcasting site first hand.] 

Another difficulty inherent in private shortwave broadcasting is finding a way to fund it. Shortwave radio is difficult to monetize through promotional ads. After all, private stations typically broadcast to a vast audience; it’s hard to advertise a regional retailer or service when your footprint covers up to a third of the entire planet. And shortwave listeners are often “disenfranchised”; they have no means to purchase products. But conversely, the disadvantage is also an advantage–save the Internet, what media is so widespread–?

Private broadcasters, however, still maintain their services by brokering air-time to paying clients, many of whom have a religious affiliation, and by relaying language services for big government broadcasters who simply purchase transmitter time.

But then there are the mavericks, such as WBCQ in Monticello, Maine. This station is all about free speech, and maintains its site on a shoestring budget. The number and variety of shows they broadcast is nothing short of amazing. Looking at WRMI and WBCQ, it’s clear that government broadcasters could learn from these examples.

[Update: Check out the new commercial shortwave radio station, Global 24, broadcasting via WRMI.]

But is shortwave radio even relevant in the Internet age?

If you read the Shortwave Committee Report Fact Sheet the BBG recently published, you might be led to believe that shortwave should be replaced by more recent communications media. The report marks shortwave radio as a legacy technology, and claims that it is sunsetting with lesser relevancy each year. The BBG committee claims that listeners use mobile technologies and computers to access broadcasters around the globe.

There is some truth in this usage argument. If you randomly surveyed 1,000 people living in, for example, Seoul, Beijing, Bangkok, and Singapore, you would likely find very few–perhaps less than 1%–who still listen to shortwave radio. And it’s quite true that people gravitate towards the more accessible medium; in populated parts of the world where people live above the poverty line, you will find the market flooded with smartphones. In such cases, mobile Internet is certainly both financially and technologically accessible.

But although Internet penetration is increasing even in the developing world, it’s vital to note that since the birth of the Internet, invariably, poverty and Internet usage inversely correlate. In evidence, percentages of the global population with Internet access are indicated on this Google map:

WorldInternetUsage

Which can be compared with the WorldBank’s interactive poverty map:

MapOfWorldPoverty-WorldBank

Clearly, there is a direct correlation between the two. Hence my charity, Ears To Our World, distributes not smartphones at this point, but radios.

Technological transitions can be difficult to implement. Those who live in the US may remember the recent move from analog terrestrial television to digital television. Once the announcement was made about this transition, consumers had a period of time to either upgrade televisions or buy a subsidized conversion box that helped those televisions receive the new digital signals. Many found this transition, at the very least, awkward.

But now imagine that you live in a developing country on less than one or two US dollars a day, in a village without mains power, and your news source on shortwave has suddenly been removed with only a few days notice. Your alternatives? To listen over the Internet (a service that requires a subscription you can ill afford), or pay-as-you-go access via an Internet café, a half-day’s walk away…Could you save a year’s worth of salary to help pay for an Internet-capable mobile phone that you cannot even charge locally, and then pay a monthly subscription to listen to a broadcast that used to be free over the air? It’s highly doubtful. Suddenly, this “accessible technology” seems much less accessible.

It’s easy to become complacent and assume listeners have access to broadcasting content via the Internet, when decision-makers live in a word where information is not only plentiful and ubiquitous, but even bombards us to the point that we simply tune it out.

But there are other advantages of shortwave radio over Internet–especially in parts of the world where governments tightly control their country’s media:

  • Shortwave radio cannot be easily monitored by a government. In North Korea, for example, this is why shortwave radio remains a vital lifeline of information about the outside world. Censorship of shortwave radio is comparatively unsuccessful, while the Internet is often subject to total blocking.
  • Shortwave radio is the ultimate free speech medium, as it has no regard for national borders, nor for whom is in power (or not in power) at any moment.
  • Shortwave radio is inexpensive to the listener, because:
    • Radios are affordable and plentiful;
    • No apps are required, and
    • No subscription fees are needed.
  • Information races over shortwaves at the speed of light. No buffering is needed, and there is no speed difference between one area to another.
  • Shortwave radio works everywhere on the planet. You don’t have to be within a local broadcast footprint or that of a satellite to receive broadcasts. Even in the most impoverished parts of the world, you’ll find shortwave radios and batteries that run them. Their “market penetration” surpasses even that of the smart phone.
  • Shortwave radio is a basic, simple technology, requiring little to no learning curve for use.

Moreover, only this year we’ve found that shortwave radio may be an excellent means of disaster communications over vast areas, encompassing oceans and continents. Check out this report from the CDAD network.

In addition, Dr. Kim Andrew Elliott of Voice of America has been successfully broadcasting digital messages over a shortwave AM carrier for well over a year, in the form of the VOA Radiogram he produces. These data modes are so efficient, that they can break through even the most robust jamming techniques used by the Chinese government to censor broadcasts.

So, can we stop the decline shortwave radio broadcasting?

Large-scale, government-supported shortwave radio broadcasting experiences an inherent conundrum: those who fund broadcasting do not directly benefit from it. Customers pay for private broadcaster airtime, but taxpayers typically support government broadcasting.

Without the catalyst and fuel of a World War or Cold War, government-supported international broadcasting becomes invisible to those who fund it. Politicians find it easy to cut, as few constituents understand the significance of broadcasting outside their own countries. And why should they? When one lives in a first-world country with an abundance of news sources, it’s hard to relate to those who don’t.

The Canadian taxpayer spent millions of dollars to upgrade the RCI Sackville site so that it could be remotely operated and only require a skeleton crew on site.  Sackville was closed the same year (2012) these upgrades were brought online.

The Canadian taxpayer spent millions of dollars to upgrade the RCI Sackville site so that it could be remotely operated; requiring only a skeleton crew on site. Sackville was closed the same year (2012) these upgrades were brought online.

I experienced this disconnect firsthand while petitioning on behalf of Radio Canada International’s Sackville, New Brunswick transmission site in 2012, in an attempt to prevent the significant site’s closure and dismantlement. Though I spoke with a number of Canadians and even members of Canadian Parliament, more often than not, I found most were not aware of Radio Canada International’s mission nor of shortwave’s relevance. Many had never heard of Radio Canada International. Even members of the public broadcasting advocacy group, Friends of the CBC, had no idea the Canadian government broadcasts to the world via shortwave radio…and that the world was listening–even relying upon–this service.

But Canada is not unique in this respect. Similar views are common here in the US, in much of Europe, and in Asia, and no doubt this lack of awareness is impacting Radio Australia at this very moment.

I’d like to think that if taxpayers knew about the real benefits of shortwave radio broadcasting to those in need, about the vital and even life-saving information broadcasters provide to vast reaches of the developing world, they would support it.

Advice to the listener

If you would like to advocate for the continuation of shortwave broadcasting, contact your local government representative and explain the benefits I’ve outlined. Use social media to spread the word. While I acknowledge that it’s something of a Don Quixote endeavor, it’s nonetheless worth making funders aware that first-world countries may one day regret the loss of this powerful form of outreach and diplomacy.

Advice to broadcasters

Considering that Big Brother can’t easily monitor shortwave radio listeners, and that shortwave radio is usually accessible to even the world’s most impoverished listeners, broadcasters can honorably defend their services to their funders. Moreover, they can use this criteria to help determine when–and where–their broadcasts are vitally needed.

If funders are feeling the pinch, broadcasters may buy time–or even a future–with the services of private broadcasters. The free market economy (and good old-fashioned sponsorship) can keep stations afloat.

But regardless, broadcasters should not dismantle their transmission sites as Canada is currently doing. Not only is the current service originating from these sites a more reliable form of emergency communications than the Internet, should a national disaster befall us; not only do they continue to provide a broad-spectrum mode of diplomacy; but should future digital communication modes find a way to take advantage of the HF spectrum as is now under discussion, this would be most unfortunate.

Imagine a wi-fi signal with a footprint as large as several countries, digital devices with tiny fractal antennas that receive this signal containing rich media (e.g., audio and video)–these are not science fiction, but highly plausible uses of these transmission sites, even within the next decade.

Government broadcasting: a quick way of finding your target audience

So, where does shortwave reach? Take a look at NASA’s composite map of the world at night:

City Lights 2012 - Flat map

This map offers a quick view of the parts of our planet still quite literally in the dark; what’s more, it makes energy poverty shockingly apparent. Now compare this nighttime world map with the Population Reference Bureau’s most current map:

PRB-PopulationMap

Upon comparing the two, you will be able to form a vivid picture of populated areas where most people either have no access to power, or simply can’t afford it. East Africa, west Africa, and central Africa are frankly represented. Less noticeable (at least on the NASA map) are impoverished island countries, especially in the Pacific and Caribbean; Haiti, for example, is among these.

So, let’s consider: if basic lighting is too costly for people living in the vast areas these maps indicate, what about paying for–and charging–a smartphone? Obviously, these people still rely upon other means of receiving information, which at this point is radio–primarily FM and shortwave.

Another litmus test for the greater world’s readiness to transition from shortwave radio to phone/Internet technology is as follows. Note which countries lack press freedoms, and free speech, care of the Reporters Without Border’s Press Freedom Index and Map:

PressFreedomsIndexMap-ReportersWithoutBorders

This map indicates countries where those in power tightly control news and information, where the Internet is censored, and where shortwave is the only effective means of hearing the outside world. Again, you might notice the prevalence of many east African, west African, and central African countries.

We already know that shortwave radios are in common usage in these countries. But can broadcasters easily and accurately determine listener numbers in these vast, often war-torn areas? Will listeners openly admit to a survey team that they tune in to broadcasts condemned by their respective governments? Not likely. So actual listener numbers remain undetermined, although population alone provides the most useful indicator.

These listeners, kind readers, are the truly disenfranchised of our world. Still, today.

Students in South Sudan listen to their favorite shortwave radio program, VOA Learning English.

Students in South Sudan listen to their favorite shortwave radio program, VOA Learning English, with a self-powered radio supplied by Ears To Our World.

If we pull the plug on these listeners by removing shortwave radio as an information source, where will they turn? To the Internet?

Let’s assume for a moment that you’re an international broadcaster who has decided to move your content to the Internet. You campaign for and attempt to promote this transition to your listeners, some of whom are living in impoverished areas and/or under repressive regimes (these frequently go hand-in-hand). Do you really think these people can: 1) Afford an Internet service and Internet capable device? 2) Surf anonymously with no chance of their government knowing about the content they research? 3) Ensure that their Internet sources aren’t filtered by their government? 4) Feel confident that their Internet source won’t be turned off at a moment’s notice–?

And none of these points is a stretch. China is the world’s most populous country; it teems with humanity–19% of all of us on this planet live in China. China has excellent Internet penetration…as well as a government that tightly controls and filters this content. I’ve even experienced this firsthand, upon posting an article about China’s Firedrake jamming service which attempts (with only moderate success) to limit shortwave radio in China; within 12 hours, my website received a denial-of-service attack originating in, of course, China. It crippled our website for 24 hours. We had to filter the IP addresses causing the attack, which effectively made it difficult for readers in China to view our site. (China, is regarded as the sixth worst country in terms of press freedoms, according to the Press Freedoms Index). Shortwave can sidestep jamming much more effectively than the Internet can ever hope to overcome such vicious service attacks.

Meanwhile, in Africa…During the last election cycle in Zimbabwe, as some readers may be aware, Robert Mugabe ordered the confiscation of shortwave radios throughout the country. He clearly feared outside news sources like the Voice of America, BBC World Service, and the now-defunct SW Radio Africa. If there was no audience for this information, would Mugabe have gone to such lengths? According to the World Bank, only about 17% of the population of Zimbabwe has access to the Internet (and if you expect this 17% is uniform according to income, you’d be mistaken). The disenfranchised in Zimbabwe, by and large, do not have free and open access to the Internet.

A (modest) positive spin on the decline of shortwave broadcasting

Writing this article has been a cathartic experience for me. In this article, I’ve focused more on the negative implications of shortwave radio’s decline, especially within the humanitarian context. The decline of shortwave radio is a fact I don’t like to face, yet it’s in front of me every day as a humanitarian and as a listener.

But somehow, I’m still an optimist. While others are loudly complaining there’s nothing to listen to on the bands, I’ll be quietly listening to those stations that they don’t realize still exist.

Even as I wrote this column, I was listening to Alcaravan Radio in the wee hours of the morning. Mambo music emanated from Alcaravan’s low-power (1,000 watt) Columbian station. It amazes me that this relatively weak signal punches through the ether during the night and fills my headphones with music. This little signal, and many others like it, play on in the pale glow of shortwave’s apparent “sundowning,” and somehow, this decline is mocked by the cheerful sound.

(Click to enlarge)

Radio Alcaravan WSL from 2013 (Click to enlarge)

There are numerous small stations out there like Alcaravan Radio, more than most uninitiated listeners would ever believe. To be clear, though, I would not be able to hear Alcaravan Radio so well if it wasn’t for the fact that I have a good receiver hooked up to a decent wire antenna, and I live in a rural, RFI-free area. I can understand that those living in urban areas with a lot of local noise may get frustrated with the lack of stations to be heard from a portable radio, just as urban light pollution makes it nearly impossible for amateur astronomers to experience the kind of star-gazing their rural friends enjoy. With low RFI, the world opens up on the shortwave bands.

The truth is, I actually do more SWLing now than I did back when the bands were crowded. Why? The challenge has become less about hearing an elusive station through adjacent signal interference, and more about finding those DX stations buried in the static–or waiting for a propagation opening to snag something truly special. With less stations on the air, there is less interference to obscure weaker stations.

As my buddy Dave Richards (AA7EE) recently wrote:

“[T]he silver lining to the cloud is that the new shortwave landscape encourages solely English-speaking listeners to listen outside their immediate comfort zones by listening to broadcasts in other languages. [T]he absence of some of the previously bigger signals makes it a little easier to spot the weak rarities.”

I also enjoy listening to the thriving free radio (aka, pirate radio) scene. Unlike big government broadcasting, this micro-broadcasting is ever changing, growing, and becoming more innovative. (Check out the pirate radio listening primer published earlier this year.)

Yes, variety is still there. For proof, check out some of the recent recordings posted on the Shortwave Radio Audio Archive. In the past year, I’ve personally recorded hundreds of international broadcasters, pirate radio stations, utility stations, and even numbers stations; this doesn’t even include the many more I’ve logged. And, yes–I’ve thoroughly enjoyed it.

Listening to my CommRadio CR-1 while on vacation in Taos, New Mexico

Listening to my CommRadio CR-1 while on vacation in Taos, New Mexico

Long Live Shortwave

If you feel so compelled, be an advocate for shortwave radio; it’s something you can do for those who don’t have a voice in this matter. Contact your local representative, and ask him/her to maintain vital transmission sites and world broadcasts. Your voice can make a difference here–and across the planet, too.

And in the meanwhile, regarding the much-talked-of coming demise of shortwave, don’t be discouraged by the naysayers and doomsdayers. Join me in contributing to the Shortwave Archive and the SWLing Post. After all, there’s still much to be heard on the shortwaves. How? Simply by listening.