Tag Archives: Loop Antennas

Giuseppe’s portable multi-loop homemade shoe rack antenna

Many thanks to SWLing Post contributor, Giuseppe Morlè, who writes:

Dear Thomas,

I’m Giuseppe Morlè iz0gzw from central Italy on the Tyrrhenian Sea, Formia.

I am sending you this umpteenth project of mine built with poor materials…it is a test bench, loops / capacitors to find the best tuning.

The frame is a shoe rack in beech wood, very light, to take anywhere or to try out at home.
On the frame, there are 4 different loops of different sizes and 3 variable capacitors with different capacities. Only one signal transfer link to the receiver for all loops.

With alligator plugs I can use the different combinations of loop / variable to find the best tune

This test rig can tune the whole HF frequency range and medium wave.

I’ve attached 3 videos where you can see from the beginning to the last test on the balcony of my house.

Videos

Note that the following videos are in Italian, but you can turn on closed captioning and in the settings of the video have it auto-translate into the language of choice:

Click here to view on YouTube.

Click here to view on YouTube.

Click here to view on YouTube.

All, as always, spending very little and employing used materials!

Thanks to you and a warm greeting to the whole SWLing Post community.

I remain available for any clarification.

Greetings to all and good experimentation!

Thank you for sharing this Giuseppe! I love your ingenuity and spirit of experimentation! What a fun project that obviously yields excellent results!

Spread the radio love

Bob’s Updated Passive, Resonant, Transformer-Coupled Loop Antenna for Shortwave

Figure 1. A Passive, Resonant, Transformer?Coupled Loop Antenna for Shortwave

Many thanks to SWLing Post contributor, Bob Colegrove, for the following guest post:


A Passive, Resonant, Transformer?Coupled Loop Antenna for Shortwave

By Bob Colegrove

Over the years I have resisted the level?of?effort necessary to construct and maintain outdoor antennas. Rather, I have focused on squeezing out all of the microvolts I could get inside the house. Many years ago I had access to a well?stocked engineering library, and used my advantage to gather information about the theory and development of loop antennas – a daunting undertaking for an English major. Ultimately, by adhering to a few basic rules, some of them dating back 100 years, I found quite acceptable performance can be had with an indoor passive antenna intersecting just a few square feet of electromagnetic energy.

Theory

There are a couple of advantages of resonant loops as opposed to non?resonant ones. The first is the fact that the signal dramatically increases when you reach the point of resonance. The second follows from the first in that resonance provides a natural bandpass which suppresses higher and lower frequencies. This gives the receiver a head start reducing intermodulation or other spurious responses. The downside of all this is that the resonant loop is, by design, a narrow?band antenna, which must be retuned every time the receiver frequency is changed by a few kHz. On the other hand, there is nothing quite as rewarding as the sight (S?meter) and sound you get when you peak up one of these antennas – you know when you are tuned in.

There is nothing new about the loop antenna described here. It’s just the distillation of the information I was able to collect and apply. There are a number of recurring points throughout the literature, one of which is the equation for “effective height” of a loop antenna. It basically comes down to the “NA product,” where N is the number of turns in the loop and A is the area they bound. In other words, provide the coil with as much inductance as possible.

Unfortunately, for resonant loops, the maximum coil size diminishes with frequency.
With this limitation on inductance, the challenge becomes minimizing unusable capacitance in the resonant frequency formula in order to get the highest inductance?to?capacitance (L/C) ratio possible. Some of the unusable capacitance is built into the coil itself in the form of distributed capacitance, or self?capacitance between the coil turns. This cannot be totally eliminated, but can be minimized by winding the coil as a flat spiral rather than a solenoid, and keeping the turns well separated.

The second trick is with the variable capacitor. Even with the plates fully open, there is residual capacitance on the order of 10 to 20 picofarads which can’t be used for tuning purposes. A simple solution is to insert a capacitor in series, about 1?4 the maximum value of the variable capacitor. This effectively decreases the minimum capacity and extends the upper frequency range. In order to restore the full operating range of the variable capacitor, the fixed capacitor can be bypassed with a ‘band switch.’ With the series capacitor shorted, the variable capacitor operates at its normal range and extends coverage to the lower frequencies. Continue reading

Spread the radio love

Grayhat’s NCPL (Noise-Cancelling Passive Loop) antenna “tweak”

My NCPL antenna

Many thanks to SWLing Post contributor, Grayhat, who shares the following modification he made to a Noise-Cancelling Passive Loop antenna last year. He’s kindly allowed me to share his notes here, but apologized that at the time, he didn’t take photos of the project along the way and recycled many of the components into yet another antenna experiment.

Grayhat writes:

Here’s a simple tweak to the NCPL, made easy for anyone. Let’s start with the commercial NooElec 9:1 balun version 1 (not 2) … made in USA.

Look at the schematic of the balun:

Cut the R1 (0 Ohm resistor – jumper) so that the center tap of the transformer won’t be connected to ground, then solder a short piece of wire to the tap.

The first pic (top) shows the balun seen from top side, the arrow indicates the small hole going to the transformer tap.

This pic shows the bottom of the board with the trace to cut and the spot for soldering the tap wire (needs cleaning with a bit of sandpaper to remove the cover paint). The solder is as easy as 1-2-3 once the trace is cut and the spot cleaned just insert a wire from the top of the board and solder it to the bottom and there you go!

Build the NCPL using “fat” coax (RG8 will do) with the top cross connection.

NCPL modification schematic

Side note: the top “cross connection” is the weak point, so it would be a good idea putting a short piece of (say) PVC pipe over that point, the piece will also help suspending the loop or sticking its top to the support pole, as for the feedpoint, a small electrical junction box will fit and protect the tiny balun from bad weather

Now the difference: connect the two center conductors of the NCPL to the balun input and the braid to the wire going to the center tap (as above).

Such a configuration will give some advantages over the “standard” NCPL one. The loop will now be galvanically isolated from the feedline/receiver so it will have much less “static noise.” Due to the tap, the typical 8 pattern of the loop will be preserved, this means that the loop will now have much deeper nulls.

By the way, the balun could just be wound w/o buying it. I suggested the nooelec since that way anyone with little soldering ability will be able to put it together. Oh and by the way it’s then possible adding a small preamp at the balun output if one really wants, any preamp accepting a coax input will work. 🙂

Again, if you can/want, give it a try !

Many thanks for sharing this, Grayhat! We always welcome your inexpensive, innovative urban antenna projects!

Post readers: If you have question, feel free to comment and I’m sure Grayhat can help. 

Spread the radio love

Jock designs a Horizontal Room Loop to cope with reception issues

Many thanks to SWLing Post contributor, Jock Elliott, who shares the following guest post:


There’s a 50-foot antenna in this room. Can you spot it?

Got reception issues? An idea worth considering: the “Horizontal Room Loop.”

by Jock Elliott (KB2GOM)

When my radio room was in the front of the house (on the east side), it was easy to run a feedline to a large RF-hungry SWL dipole with various stubs and feeders.

Now, however, with my “shack” moved to the SW corner of the house, any attempt to mount an outdoor antenna of any significant length raised potential safety issues because of nearby electrical lines.

Monitoring VHF/UHF is no big deal because of high-performance scanner antennas. HF, however, presents challenges.

My main SWL receiver is a Satellit 800, which has the guts of a Drake R8 and also has a large telescoping vertical antenna. It works okay, but I wanted more signal. I had been looking at small loops and got some great recommendations on Radio Reference, but then I had a thought: what if I turned the 8′ x 12′ room into a giant horizontal passive loop?

Here’s a hint.

So I called a ham friend and ran the idea by him. “Sure,” he said, “give it a try.” He gave me 25 feet of 4-conductor phone wire. Before I could use it, I had to strip off the outer insulation so I could get at the four separate insulated wires inside. The better half helped. Once I had the four wires, I connected two of them together and ran the resultant 50-foot strand around the perimeter of the room by taping the wire to the top of window frames and hiding the wire on the top shelves of book cases. As a result, the horizontal room loop is near the ceiling, about 7 feet in the air, and the room itself is on the first floor.

With the loop in place, I hooked the ends to the clip-in terminals on the back of the Satellit 800.

There’s a switch on the back of the 800 that allows me to quickly compare the loop with the radio’s built-in vertical antenna. And . . . it works! It pulls in more signal than the vertical (as measured on the signal strength meter), but I have not noticed a dramatic reduction in noise. On some stations, the horizontal room loop brings the signal up to full scale, and then the sound is very agreeable indeed.

In all, I am pleased with the results.

For anyone who wants squeeze more performance out of their shortwave receiver, I can recommend giving the horizontal room loop a try. It’s not expensive; it’s relatively easy to do (and undo if you don’t like the results), and just might improve your shortwave reception.

If you are not blessed with a bunch of window frames on which you could tape the wire for your room loop, you’ll have to get creative, but with lightweight wire, you don’t need a massive support structure. Tape, map tacks, or even self-adhesive Velcro segments might work for putting your room loop in place.

I don’t claim that this is the “ultimate” SWL DX antenna, but it certainly improved my situation. Perhaps others have suggestions for improving it.

— Jock Elliott, KB2GOM

Spread the radio love

Michael pairs the Tecsun PL-990 and the AOR LA400

Many thanks to SWLing Post contributor, Michael Ye (BD4AAQ), for the following guest post:


In the Loop: PL-990 and LA400, a Perfect Match

by Michael Ye (BD4AAQ)

PL-990 and LA400

I have been a happy owner of Tecsun’s PL-880 world band receivers for years. In fact I have two PL-880 radios, one sitting at home and the other staying in my car. So, after Tecsun introduced the new model PL-990 in late 2020, it didn’t take me long to decide to purchase one. In this article I will discuss the Tecsun PL-990 receiver working with loop antennas, while referencing some relevant features of the PL-880.

Overall performance of the PL-990

Merely by its model number, it is easy to regard the PL-990 as an upgraded version of the already highly reputable PL-880. As expected, the PL-990 can very much be regarded as a combination of all the existing fine radio features of the PL-880 AND the music and bluetooth additions, with a number of improvements for instance in shortwave and medium wave performance. The ergonomic design of the PL-990 looks and feels different from that of the PL-880 in a number of ways. Although I may prefer the the more slim and elegant appearance of the PL-880, the PL-990 gives a more rugged and durable feeling, among other improvements over the older PL-880.

Working with loop antennas

The PL-990 and the PL-880 side by side

Living on the twelfth floor of a condominium in the crowded Shanghai, I have often been fascinated with loop antennas. As a licensed amateur operator, I have used the MFJ-1786X and have been impressed with its performance. On reception, I also find loop antennas appealing, as they are able to pull in weak signals while noticeably reducing electro-magnetic interference rampant in the urban environment. I have an unbranded shortwave loop antenna which I believe is based on and performs similarly with the AOR LA320. Despite its excellent performance, it is only good for the 5MHz – 15MHz shortwave range. So a few years ago when AOR launched the new LA400 wideband loop antenna, I bought one, which I often pair up with the PL-880 and other radios for shortwave listening, and get satisfactory results!

Antenna Switch on the PL-990

Now, back to the PL-990. When I first tried the PL-990 with the LA400, the results were generally good but not as good as as compared with using the same LA400 on my PL-880. This puzzled me for a day or so until I realised that the PL-990 actually has an antenna switch which the PL-880 does not have. The switch is used to toggle between an internal antenna (i.e. the built-in ferrite bar/telescopic antenna) and an external one (e.g. the AOR LA400). So a new PL-990 user who has often operated the PL-880 when first using the PL-990 could easily ignore the switch which should be pushed to “Ext” when plugging in an external antenna. This explains why the PL-990 may suddenly appear less sensitive than expected.

“Ext” antenna input for all bands

Contrary to the PL-880 whose external antenna socket is only good for shortwave signal input, the PL-990’s external antenna socket works with all bands, from long wave to FM. I found this to be an important and very useful change, and a pleasant surprise for my LA400, which covers a wide range of frequencies from long wave to medium wave to FM and up to 500MHz.

Once the LA400 is connected, the correct band selected, and last but not least the antenna switch turned to “Ext”, the PL-990 and the LA400 work like a charm in the indoor setting, remarkably better than the built-in telescopic antenna. With the loop connected, while there is not much to expect on the long wave band because of very few long wave stations remaining in the world, reception improves considerably on all other bands including on the medium wave and FM bands, as is also reflected on the upper right hand display of the signal strength and S/N ratio readings. Needless to say, performance on shortwave is as good as on the PL-880, if not better (again, remember to push the antenna switch to “Ext” when using it on the PL-990). Using the AOR loop on the PL-990 for FM reception is somewhat different as there does not seem to be a noticeable tuning point. Simply select the “Others” band, which appears to be broad enough for fair FM reception.

Tecsun AN-200 loop antenna

It is worth mentioning that I have a Tecsun AN-200 tunable medium wave antenna, which I have not used often. As its name suggests, it is for medium wave reception only. I tried it on the PL-990. Works great.

The AN-200 and the PL-990

It is hard to tell which one, the PL-LA400 or the AN-200, fares better, as the signal strength and S/M readings are quite close. They both perform better than the radio’s internal ferrite bar antenna to varying degrees, by improving the signal strength or the S/N ratio or both. The Tecsun loop is a passive antenna, meaning no power is required, making it easy to be used “wirelessly”, by simply placing the loop close to the radio, without having to be connected to the radio via a cable.

Chocolate, our house cat, tries to enhance reception with her tail

It should be noted that in the “wireless” mode of the AN-200 the antenna switch on the PL-990 should remain at “Int” so as for its built-in ferrite bar and the loop to couple with each other.

Spread the radio love

Andy seeks advice on directly coupling an AM loop antenna to a crystal radio

Andy would like to couple a similar antenna to a crystal receiver

Many thanks to SWLing Post contributor, Andy, who asks the following question in response to a previous post about building a Milk Crate AM Broadcast Loop Antenna:

All references to tuned loop antennas talk about no real connection to the AM radio, but merely inductive coupling.

However, I made a very elementary crystal radio which has no ferrite core or antenna.

I want this loop to be my primary (only) antenna, so I need to feed it directly to my tuning circuit. So I don’t know if I should take a wire from any particular part of the loop, with another wire to ground… and if these 2 wires should be in parallel or series with the tuning elements of the loop antenna.

Thanks!

Good question, Andy! Hopefully someone in the SWLing Post community can comment with some guidance!

Spread the radio love

DIY: How to build a Passive Resonant Transformer-Coupled Loop Antenna for HF reception

We recently posted a tutorial on building a simple Noise-Cancelling Passive Loop (NCPL) antenna. This prompted SWLing Post contributor, Bob Colegrove, to share his excellent article on building a Passive, Resonant, Transformer-Coupled Loop (PRTCL) Antenna:


A Passive, Resonant, Transformer-Coupled Loop Antenna for Shortwave

By Bob Colegrove

Over the years I have resisted the level-of-effort necessary to construct and maintain outdoor antennas.  Rather, I have focused on squeezing out all of the microvolts I could get inside the house. Many years ago I had access to a well-stocked engineering library, and used my advantage to gather information about the theory and development of loop antennas – a daunting undertaking for an English major.  Ultimately, by adhering to a few basic rules, some of them dating back 100 years, I found quite acceptable performance can be had with an indoor passive antenna intersecting just a few square feet of electromagnetic energy.

Theory

There are a couple of advantages of resonant loops as opposed to non-resonant ones.  The first is the fact that the signal dramatically increases when you reach the point of resonance.  The second follows from the first in that resonance provides a natural bandpass which suppresses higher and lower frequencies.  This gives the receiver a head start reducing intermodulation or other spurious responses. The downside of all this is that the resonant loop is, by design, a narrow-band antenna, which must be retuned every time the receiver frequency is changed by a few kHz.  On the other hand, there is nothing quite as rewarding as the sight (S-meter) and sound you get when you peak up one of these antennas – you know when you are tuned in.

There is nothing new about the loop antenna described here.  It’s just the distillation of the information I was able to collect and apply.  There are a number of recurring points throughout the literature, one of which is the equation for “effective height” of a loop antenna.  It basically comes down to the “NA product,” where N is the number of turns in the loop and A is the area they bound. In other words, provide the coil with as much inductance as possible.  Unfortunately, for resonant loops, the maximum coil size diminishes with frequency.

With this limitation on inductance, the challenge becomes minimizing unusable capacitance in the resonant frequency formula in order to get the highest inductance-to-capacitance (L/C) ratio possible.  Some of the unusable capacitance is built into the coil itself in the form of distributed capacitance, or self-capacitance between the coil turns. This cannot be totally eliminated, but can be minimized by winding the coil as a flat spiral rather than a solenoid, and keeping the turns well separated.

The second trick is with the variable capacitor.  Even with the plates fully open, there is residual capacitance on the order of 10 to 20 picofarads which can’t be used for tuning purposes.  A simple solution is to insert a capacitor in series, about ¼ the maximum value of the variable capacitor. This effectively decreases the minimum capacity and extends the upper frequency range.  In order to restore the full operating range of the variable capacitor, the fixed capacitor can be bypassed with a ‘band switch.’ With the series capacitor shorted, the variable capacitor operates at its normal range and extends coverage to the lower frequencies.

Construction

I have constructed similar loops covering long wave, medium wave, and shortwave all the way up to about 23 MHz.  I wanted to optimize this loop for the most active portion of the shortwave spectrum. Consequently, it covers approximately 2.6 to 12.3 MHz.  See Figure 1.

Figure 1.  A Passive, Resonant, Transformer-Coupled Loop Antenna for Shortwave

Figure 2 is a schematic diagram of the antenna.  Cd (in red) is the distributed capacitance of the primary coil, L1.  This is not tunable capacitance, but it still contributes to the resonance; likewise, the 15 pf minimum capacitance of C1.  By adding C2, the minimum total capacitance can be lowered to greatly increase the upper range of the antenna. S1 is the ‘band switch.’  It shorts out the series capacitor, restoring the maximum low frequency.

Figure 2.  Schematic Diagram

Frame – The frame is made from 3/8”-square basswood or poplar dowel (see Specialized Parts).  Two pieces, each 36” long, have been predrilled at ½” intervals to accommodate the primary and secondary coil wire (think of a tennis racket).  It is a good idea to drill holes along the length of each dowel – more than you will need. You may decide to change things later on, and drilling holes in an assembled antenna is not easy.  Also the two dowels are notched in their centers to fit together. See Figure 3 and Figure 4. The clear plastic disk in Figure 4 is a packing disk from a spindle of CDs; it is cemented to the square dowels, and used to hold them at right angles.  Any rigid, light-weight material will do.

Figure 3. Square Dowel Showing 1?2” Hole Spacing and Lacing of Secondary Coil


Figure 4. Cross Members Notched and Square Dowel Reinforcement

Primary Coil – With a coil size 36” in diameter, you likely won’t be able to get more than two turns of wire to resonate at frequencies up to 12 MHz.  This takes into account the precautions described above to minimize unusable capacitance.  AWG 22 stranded, insulated wire was used to lace this coil; ensure the dowels remain at right angles with one another.  Note that one set of holes in the dowel is skipped between the first and second turn.

Tuning Capacitor – Almost any salvaged variable capacitor can be made to work.  For a typical 2-gang unit, the gangs can be connected in series through the common rotor sections and metal frame with the stator terminals of each gang used as the outer terminals.  This will create a lower minimum capacitance as described above.

For the antenna described here, a single-gang, 365-pf capacitor (see Specialized Parts) was used with a fixed mica capacitor in series.  The minimum capacitance of the variable capacitor is nominally 15 pf. Figure 5 shows the capacitor assembly for the primary circuit. Components are mounted on a perforated circuit board, which, in turn, is mounted to the bottom of the vertical square dowel.  A portion of the base can be seen at the rear. A large diameter tuning knob is suggested, as the peak tuning for a properly constructed loop will be very sharp and require a delicate touch. As an option, I have used a planetary reduction mechanism on other antennas to give an 8:1 ratio with the capacitor shaft.

You may notice at high frequencies that the antenna is somewhat unstable with body contact of the knob or around the tuning capacitor.  This is because the resonant circuit is operating at a very high L/C ratio with capacitance at just a few picofarads. Body capacitance will tend to detune the antenna.  It may be useful to extend the knob 2 or 3 inches from the tuning capacitor with an insulated shaft.

Figure 5.  Capacitor Assembly

Secondary Coil – The secondary coil operates at low impedance to feed the lead-in.  There are two extremes governing the size of the secondary coil. A coil which is too small will not pick up much of the magnetic field generated by the primary circuit at resonance.  On the other hand, a secondary coil which is too large will overcouple or load the primary circuit. This will reduce the Q, or sharpness of the tuning.

The secondary coil is 16” diagonal at the largest turn and consists of 7 turns of AWG 20 buss wire.  Buss wire was used so the coil can easily be tapped after the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 6th turn.  The 7th turn is not currently used.  A tapped coil will provide better impedance matches to the lead-in when the antenna is used through a wide frequency range.  The taps are selected with a rotary switch. The taps are connected so that the outer turns are used first, and inner turns connected as needed.  It is important that unused turns remain unconnected (free) rather than shorted. See Figure 6.

Figure 6.  Secondary Coil Switch

Lead-in – A twisted pair of AWG 22 stranded wire is used as the lead-in.  This will be more flexible than coax. The lead-in should be kept as short as possible and twisted tightly so it will not pick up any signal by itself.  This is important at shortwave frequencies. A twisted pair can be fabricated from two lengths of wire with one set of ends anchored in a vise, while the remaining ends are twisted in the chuck of a hand drill.  Most portable radios are equipped with a standard 1/8” phone jack at the external antenna connection point.  So, this antenna is terminated with a 1/8” phone plug.

Base – There is nothing special about the base.  Your only guidance should be to make it as stable as possible.  Since the frame is light, most of the weight will be at the bottom with the capacitor assembly and other parts.  That helps stability. This antenna uses a 5” plastic jar lid for the bottom. Keep the base small, as the antenna will likely be operated on a desk or table.

Operation

The antenna is intended to operate in close proximity to the radio, such as on a desk or table.  There must be sufficient space to rotate the loop laterally. As described, this antenna has a range of 2.6 MHz through 12.3 MHz with a band overlap around 8 MHz.  Depending on your selection of capacitors, your range and overlap may be slightly different.

  1. Tune the receiver to a desired frequency.
  2. Set the band switch on the antenna to the corresponding band.
  3. Tune the antenna capacitor to resonance (peak signal).
  4. Rotate the secondary switch to the position of maximum signal strength.  Begin with the fewest turns (generally one) in the secondary.
  5. It may be necessary to repeak the primary circuit.

Repeat the procedure to test operation of the upper or lower band.

Unlike similar loops for long and medium wave reception, this antenna is not especially responsive to direction for peak or null signal reception.  However, you will find it very useful to reduce or possibly eliminate locally produced noise. Simply rotate the antenna on its base.

Modification

The basic concept for this antenna can easily be extended to higher or lower frequencies.  Removal of the inner turn of the primary will significantly raise the upper frequency; whereas, adding turns will increase the lower range.  Note that the lacing of the primary coil skips one set of holes in the square dowels between the first and second turn. This minimizes distributed capacitance between turns.  This separation should be maintained if additional turns are added to lower the operational frequency.

Specialized Parts

Some sources for square wood dowel and single-gang 365 pf variable capacitors are listed below.  The author does not endorse any of them. Prices for similar capacitors vary widely.

Square wood dowel:

Variable capacitor (365 pf):


Bob, thank you so much for sharing this excellent, detailed tutorial. Although I don’t have the exact same variable capacitor, I have all of the other components to make this antenna. I will have to put this on my Social DX bucket list! Thank you again!


Do you enjoy the SWLing Post?

Please consider supporting us via Patreon or our Coffee Fund!

Your support makes articles like this one possible. Thank you!

Spread the radio love